The relationship between water and life has become more and more substantiated over the centuries through the deepening of knowledge on the role of it in biological systems and in the human organism.

Depending on its peculiar chemical-physical properties, water is involved in almost all the functions of the human body; it acts in the organism as a solvent of inorganic and organic compounds, promotes the dissociation of electrolytes, works as a thermostatic liquid with thermoregulatory capacity, allows the carrying out of metabolic transformations, constitutes the reactant of innumerable transformations of cellular chemistry, such as enzymatic reactions and biological oxidation.

Water is the main constituent of the human body and represents about 60% of body weight in adult males and  50-55% in females (characterized by a higher percentage of body fat than males), and up to 75% in a newborn. The total body water content, the intracellular and extracellular hydration process and the balance between the entry and exit of water in the body are under homeostatic control and are exercised with mechanisms that mainly regulate excretion and, secondly, stimulate the intake by feeling thirsty. Feedback mechanisms that mainly act on the kidney are also able, albeit to a limited extent, to regulate the tonicity of intracellular body fluids.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has ascertained a cause-effect relationship between the daily intake of water and the maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. The recognition considers that a body water loss of about 1% is normally compensated within 24 hours and that the absence of such compensation and the further increase in body water loss compromise physical and cognitive functions. It is also certain that water plays a particularly important role in thermoregulation. The increase in body temperature is a consequence of the reduction of sweating and cutaneous blood flow induced by dehydration.

The recognition of EFSA refers to the waters that meet the regulatory requirements for natural mineral waters and for waters intended for human consumption and is associated with information for the consumer that the indicated effect is obtained with the daily intake of at least 2.0 liters of water in any form.


How much to drink

The amount of water to drink is quite variable depending on the individual, taking into account the living environment, the work and activity regime, the type of diet and lifestyles.

Under normal conditions, self-regulation mechanisms and complex factors that determine the sensation of thirst assist the body to take the right water requirement necessary to compensate for water losses, which continuously take place due to sweating, breathing, excretion of urine and stool. However, some individuals, especially children and the elderly, are more subject to dehydration also because they demonstrate a reduction in perception in the feeling of thirst and in the natural stimulus to drink, with the risk of not adequately and promptly balancing water losses. For this reason, it is necessary to satisfy the sense of thirst in all cases, tending to anticipate it, or, in any case, to guarantee the body a regular and adequate quantity of water to keep the water balance constantly balanced and prevent risks of dehydration. Dehydration, caused by an intake of liquids lower than the loss of water, also has serious effects on the body’s activity and physical performance.

The persistent state of dehydration is associated with a significant increase in the risk of many pathologies, even serious ones, primarily affecting the kidney.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific experts on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies have recently redefined the reference dietary values ​​for the intake of different nutrients including water, recommending the quantity that is needed to enjoy good health according to age and sex.

The reference values, which consider the water taken as a whole – both through direct consumption and through food and drinks of all kinds -, in conditions of moderate environmental temperatures and medium levels of physical activity, are defined as follows:

-infants up to six months of life: 100 mL / kg per day;

-children: between 6 months and one year of age: 800-1000 mL / day, between 1 and 3 years of life: 1100-1300 mL / day, between 4 and 8 years of age: 1600 mL / day;

-ages 9-13: 2100 mL / day for boys and 1900 mL / day for girls;

-adolescents, adults and the elderly: females 2 L / day and males 2,5 L / day.

These values ​​are indicative; in conditions of warm weather and intense physical activities, or other conditions that induce dehydration, the water levels to be taken can vary considerably (it can also be considered more than double the values ​​indicated). This also occurs in stressful conditions and gastro-enteric disorders that lead to vomiting and diarrhea, such as for infant diarrhea.


Potassium is an indispensable element for the body. It is an essential mineral for the health of our body: its ions are essential for the correct nervous transmission and the effectiveness of muscle contractility. The balanced concentration of potassium in the blood also serves to ensure the correct supply of nutrients to the cells, as well as to encourage the elimination of toxic substances.

Furthermore, following a balanced diet, which requires the intake of a quantity of potassium higher than that of sodium, favors the process of eliminating the latter and keeping the pressure within the limits. This is also confirmed by the update, at the beginning of 2013, of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines: according to official indications, adults should take less than 2g of sodium and at least 3.5g of potassium everyday . The recommended values ​​are the result of studies on the general population: these limits have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of developing hypertension and, again according to the Department of Nutrition and Health of the WHO, stroke and heart attack.

The limit in the intake of potassium and sodium will be different for those who practice a lot of sport, not necessarily at a competitive level: sweating makes you lose mineral salts, therefore it is important to think about a hydro-saline integration after physical activity.


The only source of potassium for our body is the diet and the major source of elimination of this microelement is the kidney: in other words, the mineral is continuously excreted in urine. Every day a healthy adult person loses about 2g of potassium.

Potassium is a mineral salt present in more or less high concentration in practically all foods and drinks, including natural water. In principle, the intake in the general diet is not usually considered so much, but rather the relationship with sodium. For this reason, it is essential not only to know which foods are rich in potassium, but also those that have a favorable relationship between the two microelements.

Fresh fruits and vegetables are foods rich in potassium and low in sodium and these are the best ones to choose:

-bananas, apricots, citrus fruits, figs, plums, grapes, kiwis;

-tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, artichokes, cabbage, spinach, endive, arugula, lettuce, potatoes;

-soybeans and legumes;


-whole grains;

-chicken meat;

-nuts such as pistachios, almonds, peanuts, walnuts and hazelnuts.

Three servings of fruit and two of vegetables per day are sufficient to ensure the correct supply of this mineral. Regarding the cooking process, it should be noted that only boiling can reduce the amount of potassium in food.

Healthy eating is a bunch of many nuances: choosing foods rich in potassium and then consuming many prepackaged foods rich in sodium – such as sausages, olives, other pickled vegetables and chips – would be a useless paradox.


Rich in iron and potassium. They are also useful for lowering cholesterol and losing weight. Very nutritious, with low calories, chickpeas strengthen bones.


Chickpeas are tasty, healthy legumes with a delicate flavor, very versatile in the kitchen. Chickpea is a seed of a herbaceous plant (Cicer arietinum) of the Fabaceae family originally from the East and cultivated in the ancient world by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. The Latin name “cicer” derives from the Greek kikis and means strength, energy and vigor, in reference to its energetic properties, while the term “arietinum” refers to the shape of the seed, similar to the head of a ram.

Here are the properties, benefits and contraindications of this precious legume.


Rich in vitamins A, B, C, E, K, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and zinc, chickpeas are useful for controlling the level of cholesterol and blood sugar, reducing the risk of diabetes. They are also an excellent diuretic food, promoting the elimination of salts present in excess in the body. In fact, regular consumption of chickpeas is recommended for those suffering from stones. According to recent research, these legumes also have a valuable anticancer function.


Eating chickpeas helps people suffering from anemia to increase the iron level, which is one of the main components of the legume. Thanks to the potassium content, they improve circulation, regulate blood pressure and are particularly suitable for those suffering from hypertension, heart disease and obesity. Zinc, on the other hand, is essential for the general growth of the body, to increase the immune system and to metabolize proteins. Finally, chickpea vitamin K has been shown to stimulate better blood clotting and bone metabolism.


Chickpeas are a nutritious and medium-calorie food: 100 grams of cooked chickpeas (dried chickpeas boiled in distilled water without adding salt) bring about 120 calories to our body.


Although they contain a high number of calories, chickpeas can be safely eaten while paying attention to the seasoning. By adding oil and butter, in fact, you risk dangerously increasing the caloric intake of your meal.


Before cooking, leave the chickpeas to soak at room temperature for about 10-12 hours. After this time, drain and rinse them well under water. Transfer them to a large pot by pouring plenty of water over the chickpeas. Do not add salt because it may harden them. Cook the chickpeas on low heat, without lid, for about 60-75 minutes, adding the salt only at the end.


The boiled chickpeas have to be kept cooked and drained, seasoned with a drizzle of oil, in the refrigerator for 3 or 4 days. Instead, it is advisable to consume the pre-cooked chickpeas within one day of opening the package.


Here is the procedure for storing chickpeas longer: alternatively they can be frozen. Once the package is opened, consume the chickpeas within 2-3 days.


Wash the jars well and sterilize them. Then drain the legumes while keeping the cooking broth.

Fill each jar with the chickpeas by pouring over the broth and close them tightly with clean lids.

Put the jars in a large pot filled with cold water and let it boil for 30 minutes.

Turn off and wait for the water to cool down.


If you are not used to eating legumes, you may find  difficult to digest chickpeas. On the other hand, if you suffer from intestinal problems, legumes can cause abdominal bloating.


A large study on two hundred thousand people of different ethnic backgrounds would demonstrate the effectiveness of dried fruit in reducing cardiovascular risks but for confirmation, we need a large clinical trial.

Walnuts and peanuts, consumed naturally, regularly and in the right proportions, would help reduce the risk of mortality, also from cardiac causes. This is confirmed by an observational study of a large population of different ethnic backgrounds, conducted by the Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VICC), a US university in Tennessee, published in the Jama Internal Medicine journal.


They would remove the risk of mortality for any cause in a percentage ranging between 17 and 21%, and especially for a cardiovascular event, such as stroke and heart attack, with a probability in this case even decreased by 23-38%.

These are the results that emerged from a large US study that assessed the relationship between consumption of these foods and survival in a group of over 200,000 people from various continents; in particular of 70 thousand Americans, with low economic income, descendants of Africans and Europeans, included in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) and more than 130 thousand Chinese who are part of two studies, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS).

In all three groups, the reduction in mortality was evident in people more used to consuming nuts and peanuts than those who were thriftier in including these foods in their diet. “A trend – explains Hung Luu, first author of the study – observable in the different ethnic groups and not related to the metabolic state, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index”.

In addition, the study also identified a positive relationship between peanut consumption and lower risk of diabetes mellitus or death by cancer.


The benefits on longevity and on the heart would be attributable both to the properties of nuts and hazelnuts for nutrients, such as unsaturated fatty acids, fibers, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, arginine and phytochemicals, and to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that would help also to preserve the heart muscle in a better state of well-being, and to maintain endothelial function for longer.

As in everything, however, there is the right means: because nuts and peanuts must not be consumed either in excess or in defect. The American Heart Association recommends four servings of walnuts per week, without salt and without oil, considering that one serving is equal to about 42.5 grams of whole walnuts.

However, it must be taken into account that dried fruit has a high caloric content and is not always suitable for a low-calorie diet and if you are overweight, and should be avoided if you have a predisposition to allergic reactions.


The preliminary results of the study are encouraging, as they would seem to provide a low-cost preventive strategy against cardiovascular events: it would require the inclusion of dried fruit in the diet, therefore a ‘therapy’ accessible even for the poorest categories of patients. However, since we are dealing with observational epidemiological studies and not randomized clinical trials, we cannot yet draw firm conclusions: “It is not possible to say with certainty – concluded William Blot, Associate Director of Population-based Cancer Prevention and Control Research at VICC and co-author of the study – if peanuts alone are responsible for reducing observed mortality.” We will need further research to attest to its effectiveness, but the premises at the moment are hopeful.

THE THERAPEUTIC FASTING, The Prof Longo Fasting Mimicking Diet

The therapeutic fasting: the PR. Longo Fasting Mimicking Diet

Therapeutic fasting can improve your life at all levels, from the body to the mind.

In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the number of people undertaking this practice. However, it is fundamental that people who use this meal plan be aware of the strict rules that must be respected!

The aspects and consequences of therapeutic fasting

Therapeutic Fasting – Cell Regeneration

Therapeutic fasting is a real rehab. The body, at first, moves the previously accumulated toxins and then eliminates them.

There will be in our body an activation of a mechanism suitable for depuration of different sectors including tissues and organs.

However, beware! Fasting is not always recommended and not for everyone.

The processes activated during the fasting period are multiple and for this reason, it is better not to improvise a “DIY” method which has more contraindications than benefits.

The results in this case may be the exact opposite of expectations and sometimes the consequences are irremediable.

As a result, some collateral effects such as:

  • Reduced immune responses
  • Alteration of different systems (gastrointestinal and pulmonary)
  • Malnutrition
  • Dehydration
  • Heart failure

Pr. Longo and the Fasting Mimicking Diet

In 2015, in a study published in the famous scientific journal Cell Metabolism, Professor Valter Longo exposed the effects of fasting. Fasting activates powerful metabolic processes, that is why the scientist has formulated the Fasting Mimicking Diet, a food protocol that simulates such processes safely and while eating.

The Fasting Mimicking Diet is not a continuous diet, but it plans a caloric restriction for 5 days in a row. Therefore, it allows us to eat little but according to certain rules. The study conducted by Longo and his team of researchers, demonstrated how the effects of this diet could be beneficial for our body.

The beneficial effects of FMD


During the fasting period, Longo explains, the body focuses all its energy in the processes of healing and regeneration. In the presence of pathologies, this “smart” caloric restriction turns up to be effective in activating the repair processes of the tissues affected by the disease.

The goal of the FMD is to deprive our body of certain nutrients, such as glucose, in order to generate alternative energy resources. During Fasting Mimicking Diet cycles, a relative increase in stem cells has been observed.

Another fascinating aspect can be noticed from the research and the studies carried out, it relates to the significant reduction of the hormone IGF-1, a key regulator of cellular aging processes, and the outbreak of diseases associated with it.

By following the Fasting with food, risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, or neoplastic diseases such as cancer, are greatly reduced!

The Fasting Mimicking Diet could be the first safe and effective intervention to promote positive changes.


Article written by: Francesca Florenzo


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How to have longer and healthy lifespan interview with professor Mirisola about the Fasting Mimicking Diet

How to have longer and healthy lifespan: interview with professor Mirisola about the Fasting Mimicking Diet

Live longer and healthier

The concept of “living longer and healthier”, which nowadays, given the increased risk of pathologies, seems to be unachievable, is based on the always more certain conviction that nutrition contributes to its realization.

Science has certainly improved qualitatively human life, both through the introduction of new technologies, in the fields of biology and medicine.

Is it possible to live longer and healthier through nutrition? Professor Mirisola explains how!

Professor Mario Mirisola, an illustrious professor of biology and genetics at the University of Palermo, has deepened his studies on the genetics of longevity. Thanks to his many skills, he actively participated in the research project of Professor Valter Longo and collaborated in what is now known as the Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD).

Professor Mirisola can you tell us when and how did you start working with Valter Longo?

“I met Longo in 2007 after winning a Fulbright grant from the US State Department. During my career, I have always shown interest and curiosity for all these factors that can affect lifespan. It is surprising to discover how a caloric restriction (CR) and an appropriate lifestyle can be the main promoter of longevity and thus contribute to “living longer and healthier”. I therefore considered his laboratory as one of the most promising in the field of longevity research”.

Today, it seems that the thesis that our health is somehow related to food is always more confirmed. So, is it wise to talk about food that help us “live longer and healthier?”

“Absolutely! Hippocrates had already imagined that if we gave to the sick food they needed, we would be able to cure all diseases. The idea that there is a close correlation between our state of health and a correct diet is not new. Recently, however, many of the details that have found out have allowed us to study more thoroughly the metabolic pathways that are activated and extinct in our bodies by individual nutrients (molecular nutrition). This discovery could therefore allow us to live longer and in better health”.

So, could the correction of our eating habits help us prevent chronic non-transmissible diseases?

“Yes, for example, certain conditions increase the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases such as hypercholesterolemia or insulin resistance. These conditions are strongly associated with the development of different types of pathologies (cardiovascular, tumours, diabetes), which can be corrected and reduced very efficiently by regulating nutrition “.

Professor, as mentioned earlier, you have contributed to the research project on the Fasting Mimicking Diet … We would like to have your opinion:

“The FMD is extremely effective, the improvements obtained are surprising, both in the general population and in patients suffering from many pathologies. Blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure and body mass index decrease in all subjects, but especially in those who particularly have high values”.

As an expert in medical genetics, what results have been highlighted?

“From the molecular point of view, there is a hormonal reorganization with the decrease of a key hormone that promotes the mechanisms of aging, IGF-1. We also know that there is an important response to the Fasting Mimicking Diet, not only coming from the immune system but also from the stem cells, which brings about a kind of tissue regeneration. Scientific research shows that, thanks to nutrition, the concept of living longer and healthier could be achievable. ”

You followed and guided many people through this trip. It would be interesting to know the results of a pathology…

“During the 5 days provided by ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet, I monitored the values ​​of different patients with important conditions such as cancer. What I could find in these subjects was a more positive response to chemotherapy treatments. Let me explain you: reactions to the toxicity of chemotherapy are additive that is to say, as the cycles go ahead, side effects increase; who had already done several cycles of chemotherapy had a higher toxicity. After the FMD, the inflammation and toxicity values ​​have considerably reduced! Do you want to know what the most common comment was? “If only I had done it before.”

Can FMD help treat some diseases?

“Clinical trials and research are still ongoing, but the results so far suggest that these, combined with traditional treatments, can bring benefits and allow us to live longer and healthier. I’d like to emphasize that not everyone can take part in the protocol, especially in the presence of pathologies, an authorization from your doctor/specialist is necessary and for some, it could be contraindicated “.

What is the perspective of the Fasting Mimicking Diet the in combination with the traditional therapies currently used for the treatment of pathologies?

“For tumours and other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the results are very positive. Currently, we cannot draw definitive conclusion, the available figures are still low, but research keeps going on. Among the effects, there is also a decrease of the C-reactive protein, an indicator of the state of inflammation of our body. Improving these parameters suggests that FMD can be very effective in improving health or preventing chronic degenerative diseases. We expect this to have a major impact on health. We are currently starting a clinical trial on subjects with a high genetic risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, so we hope to be able to say more about the effects of this nutritional approach in the coming months on preventing the onset of diseases “.

Professor, the number of people who go on diet with DIY methods is growing more and more! What is your opinion on this choice…?

“In general, it’s not a good idea. During the different phases of the day, the distribution between macronutrients is important. In the ProLon® kit, the balance between macro and micronutrients, minerals and vitamins is the result of a scientific logic and thus guarantees its effectiveness. The kit greatly simplifies the task and makes it more reproducible, precisely because it is tested on a very large number of people.

What would you recommend?

“DIY fasting is not impossible, but not being experts in the field can lead to disasters in general, and may involve a deficiency for some substances, or too much for others. I therefore recommend that you always consult a nutritionist who knows the FMD argument and who does not improvise.

We conclude with three adjectives to describe the Fasting Mimicking Diet:

  • Effective
  • Healthy
  • Surprising

Article written by: Francesca Florenzo

Caloric Restriction, The 5 Days Of Lucia

Caloric Restriction: The 5 Days of Lucia

When it comes to deal with something new, doubts and questions that arise are numerous and often come with a kind of scepticism. In order to remove these doubts, at least in part, telling you my personal experience could be useful. Lucia, is a 36-year-old homemaker and full-time mother, she is sharing with us her own experience of the 5-day caloric restriction provided by ProLon’s Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD)!

Lucia, how did you know Pr. Longo?

“I was at home zapping on TV when an interview running on a channel on the show” le Iene“caught my attention.
They were talking about a certain 5-day diet designed by a scientist. Before that time, I had never heard of Professor Longo. So, intrigued by the subject treated in this famous interview, I did some research. After getting more information and understanding that it was not about a common slimming diet, I decided to contact you.’’

Is this the first time you have been on a calorie restriction?

“In the past, I followed diets aiming at losing weight. One of the reasons I decided to follow this type of dietary approach is precisely because it has a very different purpose. I have been suffering bowel issues for a year and a half. Food intolerance has led me to exclude certain types of food, and I must admit that it has been tough to me because I am a “hearty eater”. I did not imagine that it could be a food protocol enabling the body reset, so I thought, “why not try it”.

Did you have any particular difficulty following the diet with the kit?

“No, I must say it is easy to use. It was exactly what I was looking for: something schematic that dictated what to do and how. Of course, the mind-set is important, but having something structured day after day is a fundamental help!”

Please, describe us your 5 days

“The first day, I did not feel anything particular, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th I had a strange headache, but nothing unbearable, I do not know, I would define it more like a “feeling of tiredness”. In addition, the first nights, I was a little tired. The last day, I had some issues to eat the preparations, but only for a matter of taste!”

Have you been very hungry during these days?

“Honestly, not during the day. Only in the evening I was a bit hungry, especially when I had to cook for my family, it is very hard to resist the temptations, but luckily, the desire to follow scrupulously this program was stronger and I did not give up.”

Considering that it is very subjective, which are the preparations that you have most appreciated among all the preparations?

“The bars and the olives were very tasty, but what I liked the most was the minestrone, a good flavor, I would say!”

 What did you dislike?

“The tomato soup, on the fifth day I could not appreciate the taste. I did not like the kale cracker either.”

Let’s talk about the results:

“The first obvious factor is the decrease of the abdominal circumference. I have lost more or less 2 kg. Besides, you feel more energetic and your ability to focus seems to have improved a lot. I also had a positive return in my daily life. Let me explain, before I used to dislike vegetables and I did not drink liquids during the day, now I have integrated vegetables and I drink at least 1.5 litter of water during the day”.

What is about the problems you mentioned at the beginning of the interview?

“It was the most surprising result. Since I started this diet, I do not have intestinal problems anymore, I can finally eat dairy products, I do not know what kind of correlation is there, but I am very enthusiastic. In January, after Christmas holidays, I absolutely want to do it again! ”

Three adjectives to describe the fasting mimicking diet

  • Surprising
  • Useful
  • Well studied

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alda attinà_Nutritionist biologist_prolon

5-Day Diet: DR Attinà answers frequently asked questions

The “health / food” pairing has always caught the attention of the scientific world. According to Valter Longo, an Italian scientist and professor of gerontology at the University of Southern California, it is possible to reprogram the body, slowing down the aging process of cells, through a scientifically and clinically tested meal protocol (the Fasting Mimicking Diet, also known as the 5-day diet). The Fasting Mimicking Diet is becoming more and more popular among healthy food addicts and not only. The beneficial effects received are very numerous, as are the questions and the curiosity that this diet raises.

Today, Dr. Alda Attinà, nutrition biologist, responsible and coordinator of the scientific department of L-Nutra, will answer the most frequently asked questions related to the 5-day diet (the Fasting Mimicking Diet).


Doctor, more and more people follow and want to join the dietary protocol of the fasting diet (FMD). What do you think?

“Please notice that the growing number of people who are opening up and interested in the issue of fasting therapy is fascinating. More specifically, I believe that this interest in the FMD is because it is not about a classic diet only aiming at losing weight, but protocol designed to face cellular aging’’


What is the most common side effect during the 5-day diet? What is possible to do?

“One of the most common side effects is headache, and the use of drugs (such as pain killers or anti-inflammatories) during the fasting diet is discouraged, only if advised by a doctor. Hydration is a way to avoid this feeling of dizziness during the 5 days. It is advisable to drink at least 2.5 litres of water per day as indicated in instructions contained in the box”.


Is it possible to replace one of the components contained in the kit?

The ProLon® kit, as it is composed, is the result of scientific research that confirms its effectiveness. Remove, replace or add a component (salt, oil) is strongly discouraged, because it would spoil the formulation tested in the laboratory, which has brought about the clinical results. In case of allergies (i.e. nuts, nickel), it is better, from the beginning, to away from the FMD.


During the 5-day meal plan, what should we avoid and what should we do?

“As mentioned before, hydration is important. Besides, you must avoid the exposure to extreme temperatures (for example, very hot or very cold showers, saunas). During the 5 days, physical activity must be avoided. The cells of our body, exploiting the fasting mimicking condition, are in regeneration phase; therefore, it is better not to tire the body. Then resuming the physical activity will be even more enjoyable, thanks to the spike of energy and vitality!”


How often must the blood pressure be measured?

“In patients without blood pressure problems, a measurement must be done before the beginning of FMD, and then monitored during the 5-day cycle. However, for those suffering from pressure disorders, it would be better to monitor it and keep the values ​​under control at different times of the day.”


Is it necessary to follow a specific diet after FMD?

“It is better to have a transition day by gradually introducing the usual foods. Animal proteins and their derivatives must be avoided, such as meat and dairy products, in accordance with the principle of the longevity diet. The fish, small and blue fish can be consumed even twice a week. You can resume a diet with a bit more of solid foods (i.e. small portions of cereals and whole-wheat pasta.) Vegetables must never miss, it doesn’t matter if cooked or raw. When it comes to snacks, prefer dried fruits with seasonal fruits, to be consumed out of meals to avoid sugar overload”.

If a person does not go into ketosis, is there a risk of nullifying the benefits of the FMD?

“The answer is not so linear. The outset of our body into ketosis varies from a person to another and does not appear immediately among all the people. This depends a lot on the starting metabolism, if it is subject to insulin resistance, it may start ketosis later. However, this does not mean that FMD does not work, but, as the scientific articles and the professor’s research show, its effectiveness also affects other areas of our body, regardless of ketosis “.

Give us an example

“First of all, the glucose and cholesterol values ​​are drastically reduced. The reduction in abdominal circumference, which causes fat loss, is also one of the effects of FMD. the number of people who subsequently changed their eating habits, preferring more and more healthy food in their daily lifestyle, so the desired result, I repeat, does not only occur with an outset into ketosis, but also with cellular regeneration and improvement of other parameters because the body is in a state of fasting mimicking “.

A question that many are asking is if the use of caffeine is allowed

“For best results, during the FMD, caffeine must be completely avoided, even if a cup of coffee a day was allowed at the beginning. Even the use of teas other than those in the box is not recommended.”

When should the preliminary and consecutive analyses to the FMD be conducted?

Analyses can also be performed the day before the FMD starts. At the end, you have to allow the metabolism time to readjust. I generally recommend that no earlier than 15/20 days, because the molecular pathways could still be in the reset phase. “